Website Heading

CALIFORNIA CORPORATE & SECURITIES LAW

Enforceability Of Exclusive Forum Bylaw May Hinge On The Meaning Of “May”

No California appellate court has yet addressed the validity of forum selection bylaws in a published decision.  When the question comes before a California appellate court, the outcome may turn on the meaning of “may” in California Corporations Code Section 2116.  The statute in its entirety provides: The directors of a foreign corporation transacting intrastate…

Share on:

How Much Is A Whistleblower Waiver Really Worth?

The Securities and Exchange Commission is aggressively interpreting and enforcing its rule against impeding whistleblowers.  Rule 21F-17(a) provides: No person may take any action to impede an individual from communicating directly with the Commission staff about a possible securities law violation, including enforcing, or threatening to enforce, a confidentiality agreement (other than agreements dealing with…

Share on:

A Whistleblower Isn’t Impeded By The Want Of A Reward

Quite some time ago, I fabulated that airline delays might constitute a violation of Securities and Exchange Commission Rule 21F-17.  That rule provides that no person “may take any action to impede an individual from communicating directly with the Commission staff about a possible securities law violation”.  My theory, albeit fanciful, was that a delayed…

Share on:

Drafting Bylaws – Four Things To Consider

Four points to consider when drafting these often crucially important, but tiresome, documents: Distinguish among Shall/Will/Must. I often cite Bylaws as an example of how “shall” may sometimes mean “must” while other times may mean “may”.  See When Shall/Will/Must/May We Meet Again? Remember the Articles!  Occasionally, I come across bylaw provisions that are inconsistent with the articles of incorporation. …

Share on:

Are Consultant’s Employees Functionally Equivalent To Client’s Employees?

As a general matter, the attorney-client privilege is waived by disclosing a communication to a third party.  When a corporation hires an investment banker, the corporation’s attorneys will frequently communicate with employees of the investment banker.  Are those communications protected by the attorney-client privilege or do those communications waive the privilege?  U.S. Magistrate Judge George…

Share on:

No Directors, No Officers, No Employees And No Agents – Now What?

Occasionally, a corporation may find itself with no directors and no management.  Yet, the corporation does not cease to exist. One might wonder what use can there be in a corporation deprived of head and limb.  In Melendrez v. Superior Court, 2013 Cal. App. LEXIS 343 (April 30, 2013), the corporation was maintained as a…

Share on:

Law Firm Uses Attorney-Client Privilege As Shield In Derivative Suit

Nancy Wojtas at Cooley LLP recently brought an interesting ruling to my attention that involves the interplay between derivative litigation and the attorney-client privilege, IP Telesis Inc. v. Velocity Networks Inc., C.D. Cal. Case No.CV 11-09950 RGK (AJWx) (Nov. 5, 2012).  The case involved a derivative suit against a law firm.   The plaintiff charged the law firm with aiding,…

Share on: