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CALIFORNIA CORPORATE & SECURITIES LAW

Why Not All Purchasers Are Buyers

Modern English is partially the product of an unnatural grafting of French onto Old English.  It is for this reason that we often find two words for nearly the same thing.  Thus, we call the animal a cow  but the food beef.  The barnyard term is Old English, cu, while the table term is Old French, buef.  This should…

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When “The Check Is In The Mail” Extinguishes A Debtor’s Obligation

Most creditors likely assume that they have not been paid unless and until they receive checks from their debtors.  In many cases that assumption may be correct, but in some cases it won’t be.  Section 1476 of the California Civil Code provides: If a creditor, or any one of the two or more joint creditors, at any…

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The JOBS Act And The Convergence Of Private And Public Sales Under The UCC

Section 9610(b) of the California Commercial Code provides that if commercially reasonable, a secured party may dispose of collateral by public or private proceedings, by one or more contracts, as a unit or in parcels, and at any time and place and on any terms.  The Commercial Code, however, does not override applicable securities laws:…

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Which Code Applies When A Stock Certificate Has Been Lost, Destroyed Or Wrongfully Taken?

Earlier this week, I wrote about Judge Edward M. Chen’s ruling in Sender v. Franklin Res., Inc., 2015 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 171453, 3-4 (N.D. Cal. Dec. 22, 2015).  Judge Chen applied California Corporations Code Section 419 to a Delaware corporation on the basis that the replacement of a lost or stolen stock certificate was not governed…

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Overcoming A Securities Overissue

I like to remind my colleagues that California has two securities laws. Neither of these laws applies exclusively to corporations or other entities organized under California law.  The Corporate Securities Law of 1968, Cal. Corp. Code § 25000 et seq., is generally concerned with the offer and sale of securities in California.  The Uniform Commercial Code –…

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Is Chametz A Good?

The Jewish holiday of Passover begins at sundown this evening.  In preparation for Passover, observant Jews must dispose of absolutely all chametz, which is basically any food that is made with grain and water that has been allowed to leaven (rise).  One way to dispose of chametz, which is also spelt chometz, is to sell it to a non-Jew and…

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Legend Removal Requires Proper “Request To Register Transfer”

Removal of legends from restricted securities (i.e., securities issued without registration under the Securities Act of 1933) can be a tricky business for transfer agents, issuers and their counsel.  Improperly removing legends can get them in hot water with the Securities and Exchange Commission.  See, e.g., Holladay Stock Transfer, Inc. and Sharon M. Owens, Securities and Exchange Act…

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Court Holds Parol Evidence Admissible

As generally understood, the parol evidence rule prohibits the introduction of extrinsic evidence to alter, vary or add to the terms of an integrated agreement.  “Parol” is derived from the French word, “parole” meaning speech.  The parol evidence rule came into being as society became increasingly literate.  It was then that the written word began…

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Is Crowdfunding Subject To The UCC?

In a recently published essay, Professor Joan Heminway asks “What is a Security in the Crowdfunding Era?”  She observes: Over the years, the lines between securities and financial products regulated under commodities, banking and insurance law have become blurred. Moreover, with the advent of the crowdfunding era, financial interests in business enterprises may look less like investment instruments commonly known…

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The Law Governing Investment Securities May Be A Matter Of Choice

One might expect that the rights and duties of a California issuer with respect to the registration of transfer of investment securities would be governed by California law.  After all, Section 8110(a) of the California Uniform Commercial Code provides that the local law of an issuer’s jurisdiction applies to such matters and Section 8110(d) defines…

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