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How California Made Mergers Potentially More Difficult

The last two sentences of Section 1101 of the Corporations Code can be an unwonted surprise to some practitioners.  They are intended to ensure fair treatment of shareholders in a merger by imposing two requirements: Each share of the same class or series of any constituent corporation must be treated equally with respect to the distribution of…

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California’s 50/90 Rule – When Being In Control May Mean That You’re Not

Many out-of-state practitioners are surprised to learn that California has special statutory provisions governing a merger when a constituent corporation (Section 161) or its parent (Section 175) owns, directly or indirectly, more than 50%  of the voting power (Section 194.5) of the other constituent corporation prior to the merger.  This is the so-called “50/90 Rule”.   It can be  found in the last…

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