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CALIFORNIA CORPORATE & SECURITIES LAW

Multifarious Meanings of “Person”

Last Friday, I observed that the definitions of “person” found in the Securities Act and the Securities Exchange Act are oddly incongruous. The California Corporations Code is similarly inharmonious.  Section 18 of the Code, which applies to the entire Corporations Code unless a provision or context requires otherwise, provides the most compendious and indeterminate definition:…

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Chairman, Chairwoman, or Chair?

To someone who is not familiar with the English language, many words must seem bizarre.  One such word, is “chairman”.  Does this refer to a chair made into a man or a man made from a chair?  What should be made of a law that solemnly proclaims “All references in this division to ‘chairman’ shall be…

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Just How Many Ways Are There To Become A Director?

Lao Tzu (老子) is said to have written that there a many paths to enlightment, but how many paths are there to becoming a director?  To answer the question, let’s look at the definition of “directors” in the California General Corporation Law: “‘Directors’ means natural persons designated in the articles as such or elected by…

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One More Thing That LLCs Can’t Do In California . . .

Recently, I wrote about what happens when an incorporator dies.  This will be an issue, of course, only when the incorporator is a natural person.   Thus, the problem of the dead incorporator can be avoided entirely by having a non-natural person, such as a corporation, fulfill the parental responsibilities.  The legislature, however, has decided that not just…

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