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CALIFORNIA CORPORATE & SECURITIES LAW

Bylaws And Supermajority Board Voting Requirements

Yesterday’s post concerned various provisions that, although not required to be included in the articles of incorporation, must be included if they are to be effective.  One of these provisions relates to supermajority voting requirements: A provision requiring, for any or all corporate actions (except as provided in Section 303 [removal of directors without cause],…

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Enforceability Of Exclusive Forum Bylaw May Hinge On The Meaning Of “May”

No California appellate court has yet addressed the validity of forum selection bylaws in a published decision.  When the question comes before a California appellate court, the outcome may turn on the meaning of “may” in California Corporations Code Section 2116.  The statute in its entirety provides: The directors of a foreign corporation transacting intrastate…

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Professor Bainbridge Takes On S.B. 75 And The Delaware Bar

UCLA Law Professor Stephen Bainbridge recently posted an article calling Delaware’s recently enacted S.B. 75 a “self-inflicted wound”.   SB 75, which was signed into law late last month, limits the ability of Delaware stock corporations to adopt so-called “fee shifting” bylaw provisions. What I find particularly interesting is Professor Bainbridge’s thesis that the Delaware legislature…

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Bylaw Violation is also a Breach of Fiduciary Duty

Le v. Pham, 180 Cal. App. 4th 1201 (2010) dates all the way back to January of this year but is still worth noting.  In this case, the Court of Appeal held that the shareholders in a professional corporation had a fiduciary duty to the other shareholder even though the shareholders were not majority shareholders. The corporation’s…

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