Ever Wonder What Money Is? California Has Some Answers And I Have Some Questions

Yesterday’s post discussed virtual currencies (e.g., Bitcoin) and the General Corporation’s law prohibition on issuing or putting into circulation money.  But what exactly is money?  The General Corporation Law has no answer.  I’m aware of at least three different California statutes that define “money”. Government Sanction Seems To Be The Sine Qua Non Of Money First, we have the California Uniform Commercial

Bitcoin And The Corporations Code

I’ve been seeing an increasing number of references to Bitcoin and other forms of virtual or crypto currencies in the news.  For example, Jeffrey Sparshott and Robin Sidel of the Wall Street Journal reported last week that the Department of Homeland Security had frozen the account “tied to the largest Bitcoin exchange”.  In March, the Financial Crimes Enforcement

If You’re Relying On The Signature Of Two Officers, You May Want To Think Again

It is widely assumed that if a contract, note or other instrument is signed by a corporation’s president and its secretary, it will not be invalidated as to the corporation by any lack of authority of the signing officers.  After all, Section 313 of the California Corporations Code provides: Subject to the provisions of subdivision (a)

Court Explicates Scope of Usury Exemption For Real Estate Brokers

Artistotle didn’t think much of the idea of paying interest:  εὐλογώτατα μισεῖται ἡ ὀβολοστατικὴ διὰ τὸ ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ τοῦ νομίσματος εἶναι τὴν κτῆσιν καὶ οὐκ ἐφ᾽ ὅπερ ἐπορίσθη. μεταβολῆς γὰρ ἐγένετο χάριν,  ὁ δὲ τόκος αὐτὸ ποιεῖ πλέον (ὅθεν καὶ τοὔνομα τοῦτ᾽ εἴληφεν: ὅμοια γὰρ τὰ τικτόμενα τοῖς γεννῶσιν αὐτά ἐστιν, ὁ δὲ τόκος γίνεται νόμισμα ἐκ

Supreme Court To Decide If It Will Decide Whether Section 16 Plaintiff Has Constitutional Standing

No Harm, No Foul The late Lakers broadcaster Chick Hearn was known for coining or popularizing numerous basketball expressions, including “air ball” and  “no harm, no foul”.   Now, the U.S. Supreme Court may soon decide whether the principle of “no harm, no foul” applies to Section 16, the other insider trading statute. Do Section 16 Plaintiffs Suffer

But Wait, California May Require Even More In Annual Reports To Shareholders

Yesterday’s blog discussed California’s requirement that many domestic and foreign corporations send financial statements to their shareholders.  If a corporation has 100 or more holders of record (determined in accordance with Section 605), then the annual report must also provide a brief description of the following: Any transaction during the previous fiscal year involving an amount in excess

California Requires Many Foreign Corporations To Send Annual Financial Statements To Shareholders

California is a net exporter of corporate charters, but it remains home to many corporations. As a result, the California Corporations Code has a preternatural concern with foreign corporations. One example is Section 1501(a) which requires the board to cause an annual report to be sent to shareholders.  This report must include a balance sheet

The Salon Sub Rosa And Nevada Corporate Law

Rachel Anderson is a law professor at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas Boyd School of Law.  She has a website, Salon Sub Rosa, which carries the subtitle of “Musings in the Harlem Renaissance”.  Her site provides a wealth of information on Business Law & Policy, Education Law & Policy, and Nevada Law & Policy.  Recently, she was

Legislature Acts To Forestall Business Filings Götterdämmerung

Anyone who has submitted a business filing to the California Secretary of State’s office know that a serious problem exists.  At present, the Secretary of State has 122,000 documents waiting to be filed.  The delays are simply intolerable for the conduct of business in a modern commercial state.  For example, the Secretary of State is processing today

An Exemption For Foreign Subsidiary Formation

The formation of a subsidiary under the laws of a foreign country may not seem to implicate the California Corporate Securities Law.  Yet, an offer and sale may occur “in this state” within the meaning of Corporations Code Section 25008. See California’s Blue Sky Law Problems for Foreign Issues and Foreign Issuers, 23 Insights 28 (July