Suitability Of Broker-Dealer Recommendations And Litotes

The Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, better known as FINRA, imposes a suitability requirement on its members.  Rule 2111(a) requires, in part, that a broker-dealer or registered representative “have a reasonable basis to believe that a recommended transaction or investment strategy involving a security or securities is suitable for the customer” based on the customer’s investment

Class A Is Class A and Class B Is Class B And Shall Ever The Twain Meet?

In addition to directors and officers, Section 16 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 applies to every person who is “directly or indirectly the beneficial owner of more than 10 percent of any class of any equity security (other than an exempted security) which is registered pursuant to Section 12″ of the Act.  This,

Is Certiorari A Possibility For SLUSA Question Not Addressed By Any Federal Circuit Court?

In Luther v. Countrywide Financial Corp., 195 Cal. App. 4th 789 (2011), the trial court ruled that state courts do not enjoy concurrent jurisdiction when a class action meeting the definition of a “covered class action” under the Securities Litigation Uniform Standards Act of 1998 (aka “SLUSA”) did not involve a “covered security”, as also

Liechtenstein And Article II, Section 1 Of The Constitution

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I spent the Fourth of July holiday in the Fürstentum Liechtenstein, a very beautiful and surprisingly inaccessible part of Europe.  Its capital city has no airport.  The country is also largely vertical, as it is sandwiched in the Alps between Austria and Switzerland.  While enjoying a cappuccino in an outdoor cafe in Vaduz, the principality’s capital,

California Legislature Mulls Anti-Short Selling Bill

In April, I wrote about a bill, SB 726 (Hueso), that would have added a new section to the Corporate Securities Law banning false statements to government officials for the purpose of manipulating the price of a company’s security by triggering an investigation.  See “Bill Aims To Put The Kibosh On Alleged Hedge Fund Stock

Does “Valid When Made” Apply To Evidences Of Indebtedness Qualified Under The CSL?

Many have expressed disappointment that the U.S. Supreme Court denied certiorari in Midland Funding, LLC v. Madden.  The question presented by the petitioners in the case was as follows: Whether the National Bank Act, which preempts state usury laws regulating the interest a national bank may charge on a loan, continues to have preemptive effect after the national bank has sold

SEC Declines To Define “Mineral” In Resource Extraction Rule But Then Defines It Anyway

As reported by Broc Romanek yesterday, the Securities and Exchange Commission adopted (again) a resource extraction rule.  Congress had ordered the SEC to adopt a rule by April 17, 2011.  After belatedly adopting a rule, the U.S. District Court vacated the rule and sent it back to the SEC.  American Petroleum Institute v. SEC, 953

Is Counterfeit Currency A Bank Note?

Counterfeiting was once considered to be tantamount to treason.  It is still a serious, but not capital, crime.  In fact, it is one of only four crimes specifically mentioned in the Constitution.  Notably, however, the Constitution doesn’t mention paper currency, it refers rather to the “securities and current coin of the United States”.   Perhaps

Are A Breach Of Fiduciary Duty And A Breach Of Governing Documents “Non Bis In Idem”?

Last week, I discussed the Court of Appeal’s consideration of whether the business judgment rule protects a director from claims based on breach of the corporation’s governing documents.  See Does The Business Judgment Rule Protect Directors Who Violate Governing Documents?  In Palm Springs Villas II Homeowners Ass’n, Inc. v. Parth, 2016 Cal. App. LEXIS 485, the corporation sued