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CALIFORNIA CORPORATE & SECURITIES LAW

Multifarious Meanings of “Person”

Last Friday, I observed that the definitions of “person” found in the Securities Act and the Securities Exchange Act are oddly incongruous. The California Corporations Code is similarly inharmonious.  Section 18 of the Code, which applies to the entire Corporations Code unless a provision or context requires otherwise, provides the most compendious and indeterminate definition:…

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Ever Hear Of A Emphyteutic Leasehold?

I have often remarked on the debt that the Anglo-American legal lexicon owes to French and Latin.  Greek has made a much smaller contribution.  In reading Professor Peter Heather’s The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians (Oxford University Press), I came across a legal term of obviously Greek origin that I had…

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Professor Robert J. Jackson Jr. Nominated To Become A Member Of The Securities And Exchange Commission

As Broc Romanek noted yesterday, President Donald Trump has nominated Columbia Law School Professor Robert J. Jackson, Jr. to become a member of the Securities and Exchange Commission.  Over the years, Professor Jackson’s name has made several appearances in this blog, including: Why Commissioner Gallagher Is Not Mistaken On Political Spending Disclosure Political Spending Disclosures –…

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A Permit To Negotiate – Really?

It is sometimes forgotten that the California Corporate Securities Law of 1968 makes it unlawful to either offer or sell a security in California in an issuer transaction unless that the sale has been qualified or exempt from or not subject to qualification.  Cal. Corp. Code § 25110.  Thankfully, the CSL exempts most offers.  Today’s…

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Why Not All Purchasers Are Buyers

Modern English is partially the product of an unnatural grafting of French onto Old English.  It is for this reason that we often find two words for nearly the same thing.  Thus, we call the animal a cow  but the food beef.  The barnyard term is Old English, cu, while the table term is Old French, buef.  This should…

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California Proposes To End Bylaw Amendment Reviews

Credit Unions got their start in Nineteenth Century Germany.  In 1909, Roman Catholic textile workers opened the first credit union in the United States, St. Mary’s Cooperative Credit Association (later, renamed La Caisse Populaire Ste.-Marie).  At first, the credit union operated out of the home of its first president, Joseph Boivin.  Today, that building is the site of America’s Credit Union Museum. …

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Financial Difficulties – A Bizarrely Vague Standard For Disclosure

Earlier this year, the Securities and Exchange Commission published for comment proposed amendments to the Municipal Securities Disclosure Rule (Rule 15c2-12).  The existing rule is complicated and I will not attempt to explain it here.   For purposes of this discussion, suffice it to say that the SEC is proposing to add an event notice for the occurrence of…

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Officers Of Foreign Corporations And The California Courts

Yesterday’s post concerned Section 2116 of the California Corporations Code.  Courts sometimes describe Section 2116 as codifying the internal affairs doctrine.  See, e.g., Vaughn v. LJ Internat., Inc., 174 Cal. App. 4th 213, 223 (2009) and Voss v. Sutardja, 2015 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 8795 (N.D. Cal. Jan. 26, 2015).  To the extent that Section 2116 codifies the…

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“And” Or “Or” – This Ninth Circuit Opinion Highlights The Difference

“And” and “or” are classified as conjunctions. They are classified as such because they yoke together words, phrases, clauses and sometimes even sentences.  They are not interchangeable, however, as illustrated by the recent opinion by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in Zetwick v. County of Yolo, 2017 U.S. App. LEXIS 3260 (9th Cir. Cal. Feb.…

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Investment Advisers And Broker-Dealers Face Scant Likelihood Of California Examinations

The California Department of Business Oversight recently issued a report on its Broker-Dealer/Investment Adviser Program.  This report was required by the Budget Act of 2014. Although short, the report provides some interesting data about California’s oversight of investment advisers and broker-dealers. In the last five years, the number of investment adviser firms subject to examination by the BDO has increased…

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