Nevada Enacts Provisions Permitting Ratification Of Corporate Acts

Etymologically, one might view the meaning of “ratify” as to make as one had thought.  It is derived from two Latin words – ratus (the past participle of the verb meaning to think) and facere (the infinitive of the verb meaning to make).  Two years ago, Delaware added two statutes intended to facilitate ratification of corporate

California Amends Code To Authorize Worker Cooperatives

I’ve written in the past about various efforts to create a workers cooperative law here in California.  See Are Worker Cooperatives A “Sea Water Fish In A Freshwater Pond”? and In The Year 2525, If Man Is Still Alive, If Woman Can Survive, They May Find Limited Liability Worker Cooperatives.  This summer, the California legislature enacted legislation, AB

Court Poised To Decide Whether Directors Are Agents

Not quite four years ago, I wrote about whether directors are agents.  The post was prompted by then Chancellor William B. Chandler III’s assertion: This is because the board’s power – which is that of an agent’s with regard to its principal – derives from the shareholders, who are the ultimate holders of power under

Conduct Unbecoming Of An Officer And An Employee?

In proposing executive compensation recoupment rules, the Securities and Exchange Commission either overlooked or failed to recognize an important legal distinction.  The proposed rules would require national securities exchanges and national securities associations to establish listing standards requiring each issuer to develop and implement a policy providing for the recovery, under certain circumstances, of incentive-based compensation based on financial

Does The Power To Choose Not Include The Power To Remove?

Last week I wrote about Vice Chancellor John W. Noble’s ruling in Gorman v. Salamone, C.A. No. 10183-VCN (Del. Ch. July 31, 2015) that a stockholder adopted bylaw empowering stockholders to remove officers is invalid.  The stockholder grounded his argument on Section 142(b) of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which provides: Officers shall be chosen in such

Did You Ever Wonder What You Might Do In California But Not Delaware?

A recent decision by the Delaware Court of Chancery tackles the question of whether a stockholder may adopt a bylaw granting stockholders the right to remove officers.  In Gorman v. Salamone, C.A. No. 10183-VCN (Del. Ch. July 31, 2015), Vice Chancellor John W. Noble ruled that such a bylaw was invalid under Delaware law. The stockholder

50% Shareholder Denied Say In Defense Of Corporation

If two shareholders each own one half of the outstanding shares of a corporation, one might expect that they would have an equal say in just about everything.  It turns out that in some circumstances they won’t. In Coldren v. Hart, King & Coldren, Inc., Cal. Corp. Appeal No. G050202 (July 13, 2015), a shareholder sued the

Do De Facto Officers Owe Fiduciary Duties?

A recent ruling by Magistrate Judge Jacqueline Scott Corley addressed the interesting question of whether a consultant might owe a fiduciary duty as a de facto officer.  Music Grp. Macao Commer. Offshore, Ltd. v. Foote, 2015 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 81415 (N.D. Cal. June 22, 2015).  The ruling came in a lawsuit by a corporation against a

CalPERS Claims Success; Proxy Monitor Says CalPERS Success Leads To Lower Stock Prices

“Fair is Foul, and Foul is Fair” In this press release issued last week, CalPERS congratulated itself on the “success” of its proxy voting initiatives: The California Public Employees’ Retirement System (CalPERS) made significant progress during the 2015 proxy season, where it voted to improve the rights of shareholders to nominate corporate directors – commonly referred

Court Declines To Declare “S” Corporation Shareholders’ Agreement Unenforceable

In general, shareholders of a corporation that has elected to be taxed under Subchapter S of the Internal Revenue Code are taxed on corporate profits regardless of whether the corporation makes any distribution of those profits to its shareholders.  Obviously, paying taxes on income that isn’t actually received can be a problem for many shareholders.