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CALIFORNIA CORPORATE & SECURITIES LAW

Must A False Statement To A Franchisee Be Made “In this state”?

The list of instruments and interests included within the definition of a “security” in California Corporations Code Section 25019 is long.  A franchise, however, is not to be found amongst the named.  In fact, the statute specifically excludes a franchise subject to registration under the California Franchise Investment Law (Corporations Code Section 31000 et seq.) or exempt…

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The DBO As Religious Regulator

In December last, the Department of Business Oversight published the 2016 Commissioner’s Report on the Offer or Sale of Securities by Permit under Corporations Code Section 25113.  This report, which is required by California Corporations Code Section 25113(d), provides data on the permits issued by the Commissioner under the Corporate Securities Law of 1968.  Qualification by…

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Five Gnostic Exemptions From The Qualification Requirements Of The Corporate Securities Law

When looking for exemptions from the qualification requirements of the California Corporate Securities Law of 1968, a good place to start is Chapter 1, Part 2, Division 1 of Title 4 of the Corporations Code.  Cal. Corp. Code § 25100 et seq.  If you don’t find an usable exemption there, another promising place to look is the rules of the Commissioner…

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Must A Security Be Written?

In yesterday’s post, I covered some of the differences between the laundry lists of securities found in the California Corporate Securities Law of 1968 and the Securities Act of 1933.  Both lists seem to contemplate instruments that are written.  But what does it mean to be “written”?  Before the advent of computers, email and electronics,…

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Making A List Of Securities And Checking It Twice

California Corporations Code Section 25019 defines “security” not by saying what a security is but by providing examples of numerous types of securities.  In this respect, Section 25019 is reminiscent of Section 2(a)(1) of the Securities Act of 1933.  The two statutory lists, however, are not identical.  Below is a brief summary of some of the differences: Securities listed…

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Unregistered Sales Of Certificates Of Deposit

Last spring, the California Department of Business Oversight warned consumers that two related companies have been offering unlicensed online securities broker-dealer services and “unregistered sales of certificates of deposit (CDs)”.  The Department’s announcement raises the question of whether the offer and sale of CDs must be qualified under the Corporate Securities Law of 1968. Section 25019 of…

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Court Rules Fixed Income Annuity Is Not A Security Under The CSL

Because annuity contracts involve the payment of money in the expectation of future payments, one might conclude that they are securities within the meaning of the California Corporate Securities Law of 1968.  Evidently, that is what Mr. Abbit or at least his lawyer believed when they filed a class action lawsuit against an insurer alleging,…

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California’s Private Fund Adviser Exemption

Before the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act in 2010, many advisers to alternative investment vehicles, such as hedge funds, private-equity funds, and venture capital funds relied on the Section 203(b)(3) exemption from registration under the federal Investment Advisers Act.  In California, investment advisers exempt under Section 203(b)(3) had a corollary temporary exemption from California investment…

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Will New Rule 147A Lead To A Renaissance In California Permit Applications?

Yesterday, the Securities and Exchange Commission adopted a new intrastate offering exemption under the Securities Act of 1933.  Significantly, new Rule 147A will have no restrictions on offers and will not require that an issuer be organized in the state in which the intrastate offering is being conducted.  I was pleased to see that the adopting release cited…

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Why State Registration Of Security-Based Swaps Is Non-Existent

The regulation of “swaps” lies at the intersection of the commodities and securities regulation.  In the parlance of commodity regulation, a “swap” is a contract or transaction that provides for a payment dependent on an event or contingency “associated with” a financial, economic or commercial consequence.  7 U.S.C. § 1a(47).  A “security-based swap” is a “swap”…

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